If you haven’t heard, the latest version of Groovy was released this week and included with it, among many other great features, was Grape (Groovy Advanced Packaging Engine). Grape is an annotation based dependency management system that provides functionality similar to that of Maven and Ivy with one clear advantage, namely, no build file.
If Grape doesn’t use a build file, how does it know what dependencies are necessary to run the code? Does it figure it out for you on the fly? Unfortunately, it is not that smart (yet), perhaps the next release. If it doesn’t figure it out for you, then how do you specify your dependencies? You configure your dependencies by using the
What is so good about being able to configure your dependencies via annotations?
If you are working with Groovy scripts, it frees you up from having to worry about dependency management and allows you to focus more on what the script needs to do much like when working with other scripting languages like Ruby or Perl. In order to clearly demonstrate the advantages of Grape, lets walk through an example.
Trying to keep up with my ever changing IP address after switching ISP’s earlier this year. There are several services running at my home that I need access to on a daily basis. If my IP changes over night, after a brown out, or for some other reason, I need to know about it asap.
In order to keep up with my IP address, I wrote a set of scripts that perform the following:
- Obtains the current IP address of the server where it is running
- Looks up the most recent IP address of the server in a log file
- If the current IP address is different that the most recent IP address:
- Updates the log file with the current IP address
- Send the new IP address in a customizable email to a configurable address
- If the IP address’s are the same, it does nothing.
It took a total of three Groovy classes/scripts to solve this problem. We are not going to get in to the details of the solution because I want to stay focused on Grape.
You can find all of the code discussed in this post on github. Please feel free to download and use it. Feedback is welcome as well.
This simple Groovy class first connects to a mail server, and then sends the change of address message.
The most interesting things to pay attention to are:
@Grapesblock after all of the imports, you can see this groovy class depends on javax.activation and javax.mail jars.
- Thanks to Grapes, you can compile this class simply by invoking
groovyc Mailer.groovyas opposed to having to configure either Maven, Gant, Ant, or some other build tool to manage the dependencies and classpath for you.
- What’s the big deal? Read more to find out!
This next code snipped represents the “main” entry point of my solution. It simply obtains the current IP address of the machine it is running on, checks the current address against the most recent known address stored in a log file, and then uses the previous class to send an email if the IP address has changed.
The most interesting thing to pay attention to in this script is:
#!/usr/bin/env groovyon the first line on the script.
- This line enables the script to be called directly from the command line like:
The Big Deal!
If Grape didn’t exist the only way to invoke this script would be to invoke it with a build tool such as Maven, GAnt, or some other. If a build tool didn’t suit you then you would have to invoke
groovy -classpath=/path/activation.jar... and manage the dependencies there. Both of these solutions work fine, but are clunky.
If you were to solve this problem using a language such as Ruby, you would not have to worry about dependency management since Ruby is so closely integrated with the OS. You would simply run
gem install some gem, and this would install the dependencies at the OS level. Thus allowing you to focus on your script and letting the Ruby runtime focus on the dependencies. Invoking
./someScript.rb is common in Ruby.
Grape gives Groovy scripts the same clean dependency abstraction. It is possible to invoke
./whatsMyIp.groovy without having to worry about any dependency management. Once the groovy runtime comes across the Grape annotations, it loads the dependencies on demand freeing the Groovy script from having to be wrapped with a dependency management layer.
This is a huge deal because now simple Groovy scripts can leverage the entire Java ecosystem from the command line without having to wrap the invocation with a build tool. Groovy Scripts are now clean, simple, and easy. I hope this inspires you to go out and convert some Ruby or Perl script to Groovy.